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Pythagoras : A great mathematician in Greek antiquity

Pythagoras was one of the first of the great mathematical names in Greek antiquity. This great mathematician was born about 584 B.C. in same belonging to the Tonian colony of Greeks planted on the western shores and islands of Asia Minor. In 529 B.C., he settled at Crotona, a town of the Dorian colony in south Italy and there he began to lecture upon philosophy and mathematics. His lecture room was thronged with enthusiastic hearers of all ranks. Many of the upper classes attended, and ever woman broke a law which forbade them to attend public meetings, and stocked to hear him.

Fatullah Stadium

I say almost anything. But the other night, when I was fast asleep I heard much clattering and banging downstairs. I thought it was a burglar. However, as I was burgled a few months ago and there is nothing left to steal, I went back to sleep.

The following morning, on entering the lounge, I was confronted by an unholy mess: flower vases knocked over, dust everywhere and a stunned–looking pigeon with a headwound trying to hide in the only corner of the room not splattered in its own droppings. It had come through the open window and having a brain the size of peanut, was unable to find its way back out.

What is so frightening about a pigeon?

ÔNothingÕ is the reasonable answer. Yet for the first time, I felt in need of a man.

I opened all the windows, then ran away. An hour later, the pigeon was still sitting there. So, I went and armed myself with a broom to sweep it towards freedom.

ABC International School takes a ride for using
a quadrat to sample from a habitat

Ecology is basically the study of inter-relationships that exist among organisms and between organisms and their external environment. In analysing an ecosystem (i.e. a distinct self-supporting system of organisms interacting with each other and with a physical environment), the first step for an ecologist is to estimate the populations (i.e. the total number) of all the species existing in that area. For a large ecosystem, counting all the organisms is not what one would like to do. Instead, quadrats are used to have an estimate of the populations of organisms which do not move much (examples are plants, snails). A quadrat is a small sampling square made of wood, metal or plastic.

On October 28, 2010, Thursday, science students of Class–X, under the supervision of their teacher of Biology Golam Moula, had started their first step of study of inter-relationships which exists among organisms and between organisms and their external environment.

Earth’s structure

Earth, a rocky planet, has a diameter of 12,756 km. This huge ball of 4.6 billion years in age is divided into several layers. The uppermost layer is the atmosphere. Below that is the crust–a layer of solid rocks most of which is covered by water. Mantle is the layer beneath that. The outer core is mainly of the magnetic metals iron and nickel. This layer causes EarthÕs magnetic field. The inner core is very hot for radioactivity and extreme pressure. But the pressure stops the inner core from melting.

EarthÕs crust had formed as the planet cooled down while it was very young (before that, it has totally molten). When further cooling had occurred, the crust cracked and divided into 9 major tectonic plates and a number of smaller ones. These plates move continuously along the crust with speeds of 2.5 cm- 5 cm per year. When these plates get stuck by each other and can not move, tension starts to build up which is released by earthquakes. About 800-700 million years ago, there was just a single continent, called ÔRhodiniaÕ. That was broken away into separate continents as plates had changed their position. Then about 250 million years ago, there was only one super continent called ÔPangaeaÕ and a super ocean called ÔPanthalassaÕ. But that also broke away. The crust is still changing to form new continents even if we donÕt notice it.

An introduction about chemistry

What is chemistry? How do we benefit from its study? What competences, skills, and attitudes are students expected to acquire as they experience the study of chemistry? How can we put chemistry to work for us? Does it have any social implications for us? These are some of the questions which pass through the minds of young students. We hope that after they have completed the course contained in this textbook, they will be a long way towards an appreciation of answers to these questions.

Chemistry is the study of the nature and properties of all forms of matter–the substances which make up our environment–and the various changes which these substances undergo in different conditions. It includes manÕs attempts to transform the natural world in order to benefit from natureÕs complexities and hidden resources. Chemistry is typically an experimental science and relies primarily on practical work. It is usually studied along with other related subjects such as biology, physics, earth sciences, and mathematics. Chemists, like other scientists, rely on an agreed body of fact–and–theory, and the relationship between theory and experiment is gradually developed throughout this book. A major task of a beginner in chemistry is to acquire a range of competences, skills, and attitudes which will include the following.

Picnic: An enjoyable entertainment

One of the best and most enjoyable entertainment is picnic. It is a day when we spend the time with friends and family in a beautiful place. Picnics are really a different and enjoyable moment out of our homes and offices. Some days ago, we, the students and teachers of our school, went to a picnic at Nandan Park. We experienced the true joys of a picnic in that day.
We started the journey early morning. In the bus, we were all singing, telling jokes. We were getting close to the picnic spot every moment. The greatest fun was at the entertainment park. There were a lot of rides in Nandan Park. We all enjoyed the rides. As we were all together, our fun was multiplied thousands of time. We also enjoyed the natural beauty in Nandan Park. There were green trees everywhere. There were also wild animals in cages.
At the noon, we all sat down under the trees. In the cool and wonderful environment, we ate our lunch. At the afternoon, we paddled boats in a large, blue lake. Even our teachers were enjoying the picnic with us. Our joys were increased by a lot of times in seeing everyone around us enjoying. That was a day when I saw everyone in a happy mode. Of course, the reason of that fun was not the rides, but because we were altogether in a picnic. After that, we all started the journey back home by bus. But the end of a picnic does not mean the end of all picnics. Humans will go to picnics when they want entertainment from nature with their friends and family. There is no better way of entertainment than picnics if we go with our friends and family.

Swine Flu

A new disease has caused global concern recently. The rapid spreading of this disease was declared first on April 23, 2009. This disease is Ôswine fluÕ.

Swine flu is caused by the new swine influenza A or influenza H1N1 virus. It formed by the genetic mutation and combination of the common influenza virus, avian influenza virus and swine influenza virus. Humans do not have natural immunity against this new virus. So when it was first transmitted into humans from infected pigs, the virus quickly spread among humans.

Influenza H1N1 virus harms the respiratory system of humans. This virus spreads by coughing and sneezing of infected people. When the droplets of sneezing and coughing containing the virus reaches the nasal passage, the person becomes infected.

Swine flu symptoms are very similar with other influenza symptoms. The symptoms are fever, vomiting, body pains, cough, sneezing, nasal congestion and sore throat. But symptoms appear a few days after a person is infected. In fact, the transmission of the virus from the infected person is possible one day before the symptoms appear.

If people have only swine influenza, their disease will be cured naturally. They just need to take rest at home. But swine flu can also cause death if there is no proper treatment. This occurs when swine flu is followed by pneumonia or bacterial infection, and influenza complication occurs. If people having diabetes disease in heart or lungs have swine flu, complication occurs in the disease. Treatment is needed in any case of complication.

Influenza H1N1 virus is sensitive to the antiviral drugs oseltamivir and zaminivir. Any swine influenza patient must be treated with these drugs. People can also be vaccined against swine flu. The vaccine was discovered at the middle of 2009. Many developed countries ordered for the vaccine before. Bangladesh will get supplies of this vaccine at the beginning of 2010.

However the transmission of swine flu can be prevented easily if some precautions are maintained. People must wear face-masks outside home. Face-masks prevent infected droplets from spreading. People must always cove their faces when coughing or sneezing. Hands should be washed clearly at regular intervals. People with influenza symptoms must stay at home. Anyone having fever along with breathing problems must take advice from a physician instantly. Laboratory test is necessary to be sure that a person has swine flu.

The first person to die from swine flu was of Mexico. Swine flu quickly spread to many parts of the world. Some thousand of swine flu patients have died in the world. The first swine flu patient in Bangladesh was identified in June, 2009. Until now, a few people have also died from swine flu in Bangladesh.

But only about 1% of swine flu patients die for the disease. There are about 260,000 swine flue patients in the world. But most of them are cured with simple or no treatment. Though it is feared that swine flu will spread rapidly in this coming winter, it can be prevented if people are serious about it. Every government have taken steps to prevent the spreading of this disease. Treatment for swine flu is also possible in most countries.

Most people are very tensed about swine flu. But their fear is exaggerated. Medical science is much more developed now than in the last century. So an epidemic will of course not occur if people are serious about swine flu.

The super-cyclone Sidr

ÒMy life changed for a storm, one and half years ago. Sidr!Ó the boy said.

I too remembered about that night of 15th November, 2007. The super-cyclone Sidr carried out its destruction all over Bangladesh.

I remembered about that storm. It killed 3 thousand people. Vast areas of forests and plantations were devastated.

We decided to visit Ramna Park before returning home that day. In the cloudy afternoon I left Sishu Park with my parents.

Ramna Park was very near. It was crowded. Hawkers were earning well in there My father called a boy selling nuts and we had some nuts. The boy was about ten years old. His trousers and T-shirt were ragged.

My father asked, ÒDo you live permanently in Dhaka?Ó The boy said that he was from ÔDublar Char,Õ a village south of Bangladesh. He said that he lived there with his parents. His father was a fisherman. His mother looked after some cows and hens at home. I asked why he was in Dhaka. ÒMy fate!Ó the boy said, with his eyes wet.

The boy continued, ÒAt dawn I found the storm over. But it took away my father and mother. I didnÕt find my parents. Dead people, cattles, hens, everything lay beside each other. Houses were destroyed. There was a deep cut on my right leg. A kind doctor gave treatment to me personally. I had no way to live in village anymore. Everything was damaged there. I came to this city. I carried luggage at the rail station for 6 months. But for about a year IÕm selling nuts.Ó

My father asked, ÒHow much for the nuts?Ó and paid. The boy, with the unbearable memory in mind, smiled, took the money and went away.

English: A most popular language

English is one of the major languages in the world. It is the 3rd language by number of native speakers, but outnumbers Mandarin and Spanish if itÕs use as second language is considered. Around the globe, over 375 million people know the language of English. Due to the British imperialism of over two centuries in major parts of Asia and Africa, English has been learnt by huge populations in the world. It now forms the primary language of communication between countries.

But is most popular if the second language is considered.

It is a great pleasure

The coming of Eid brings with it huge amounts of joy and happiness. While the anticipation is more for Eid-ul-Azha with all the slaughtering to take place, the situations keep arising to remind us weÕre not in heaven yet. It is marred by the poor economy of the country which forced many to abandon their ideal shopping list and go for a scanty few. The troubles of transportation, an ordinary one, peaks up just in time to the theoretical crescendo and ensures people are still disturbed by it.
It was the Eid-ul-Azha coming once again to brace us and then bid adieu, promising to wash off all evil from our minds, and to make us HisÕs favourites. The preparations to the festival was however marred by high prices of everyday items. People willing to celebrate Eid in a festive mood. Due to poor economy of the country, many had to cut short their shopping lists in order to match the budget with demand. The overall infrastructure of the transport system still causes woe in all our minds. Is it necessary for us to get accustomed to these problems, or it there a way out to celebrate Eid in our dreamlike manner?

Independence

An independent person is one who is the sole decider of what his beliefs will be, what thoughts he will posses and what actions he will undertake. And not everyone is independent. No matter how much he feels to be.

As we know, humans are biological beings. We may be different from the other varieties of life. But we still share the same basic instincts as a scared rabbit or a hungry eagle due to our biological self. What are termed as the Ôdeadly sinsÕ actually help humans continue their survival, both as the individual and the community. Imagine how useful your pride will be when you get to shortlist Ôfive peopleÕ to settle on Mars the whole Earth is destroyed. But at the same time, the deadly sins or desires keep our intellectual development suppressed to the minimum. The brilliance of human wisdom is well shadowed by the darkness of desires.

The Greek great Plato states the human spirit as consisting of wisdom, valour and desires. Stimulates acquiring knowledge, understanding through logical reasoning. It is the duty of wisdom to take logical decisions. However, desires are primarily the source of all our misdeeds and wrongdoings. Just as a spirit should rule over the body, wisdom is supposed to be controlling the desires with its logic. The role of valour is to help the wisdom gain control over the desires. But that is what Ôshould happenÕ and not what usually happens. That is when humans get overpowered by lust, gluttony, and anger. It is uneasy for desires to take control over wisdom where logical thinking is limited. Your ability to think is not there. Senses of pleasure take hold of you. All you can want is more of sensual able to think clearly and take independent decisions. People who will act depending on their desires or on ÔvaluesÕ predetermined by society do not enjoy the independence of their wisdom or rational thinking. But ideal man can justify his stance with against the society with his own wisdom and not othersÕ advice. He knows clearly what is right and what is wrong. He cannot be confused, but is sure that his path is better. That is the joy of independence to freely decide where you are going, and not being provoked by others.

Intellectual independence
Pleasure with intellectual development ceasing. In the long term, it compels you to criminal commitments for satisfying your desires.

But fortunately for most of us the control of logic over desires is a mixture of the two situations. It would take years of nurturing the soul with logical reasoning and an Ôideal manÕ But a set of rules or laws, are available in every society as the guidelines for people to follow. commonly referred to as ÔmoralÕ or Ôethical valuesÕ. These Ômoral valuesÕ are actually the knowledge that would arise in the Ôideal personÕ through acting logical thinking.
But just as antibiotics being passively introduced into an ill person has desirable effects, instilling the moral values passively into a person will help him practice self control. He will be able control his desires by degrees enough for him to live a happy life.
Desires are natural to any animal having a life. But the presence of wisdom is only limited to humans having considerable amount of self-control. It is obvious that those whose rational thinking dominates the irrational desires will be enlightened with absolute knowledge. They will be

(বিভিন্ন সময়ে বিভিন্ন বিষয়ে বিক্ষিপ্ত ভাবনার প্রতিফলন তার খেরো খাতায়। এখানে তারই অংশ।)